Driving test - Help with road signs?

I was given a pamphlet to study for my driving test, but the road signs on it are not labeled properly. (Of course! Bah.)

Does anyone know how to explain these clearly in English? See attached image.

1. It says "dual carriageway ahead" —does that just mean the road widens into two lanes? Or...?
2, 3 & 4. No label at all. What do I say?
5. It says "Bridge (Hump)". Now those are two different things. Which is it?

Any help appreciated.

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