Covid – 19 Vaccine: Which major companies are in the race?
It is a medically proven fact that vaccines save millions of lives all over the world. Vaccines train and keep prepared the human body’s natural defenses called the immune system which recognize the virus or bacteria they target and fight them off. Since a vaccinated person’s system has been trained and kept prepared through vaccines, the body immediately reacts and kill the virus or bacteria should they enter, thus preventing illness.
There are now many Covid-19 vaccines under development with several of them in the final stages of human trials and testing. World Health Organization (WHO) is collaborating with scientist and health organizations to speed up the process.
The organizations and countries which are in the race are:
Moderna / National Institute of Health: In July, Moderna began phase 3 clinical trial of their vaccine. In mid-November, Moderna officials reported their vaccine achieved an effective rate of 94% but experts state more tests are needed.
Pfizer / BioNTech / Fosun Pharma: The Company launched a phase 3 trial in late July, with a goal to recruit 30,000 people and then to 44,000 people. On November 9, the company announced that its vaccine had been more than 90% effective in clinical trial participants. The officials said the vaccine could be available to high-risk groups as early as mid-December.
Inovio: Company officials announced at the end of April that it had enrolled 40 healthy volunteers in its phase 1 trial. In late September, the company announced that its phase 2/3 trial is on hold as it responds to the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) questions about the study.
Sanofi / Translate Bio: The Company expects results from its phase 2 trial in early December. After that, they will start a phase 3 study.
CanSino Biologics: This Chinese company is also working on a potential vaccine. In August, the company began phase 3 trials in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Russia.
Gamaleya Research Institute: This Russian institute has developed a vaccine which was approved by the country’s regulatory authority. Results of a phase 1/2 trial found that the vaccine elicited an immune response with mild side effects. Phase 3 trials are currently under way in Russia, Belarus, United Arab Emirates, and India.
Johnson & Johnson: Johnson & Johnson announced in late July that it had begun a phase 1/2 trial. In mid-November, their officials said they expected their vaccine to be ready for FDA approval by February.
AstraZeneca / University of Oxford: In mid-November, Company officials said their vaccine had produced a strong immune response in a clinical trial that involved people over the age of 70.
Sanofi / GSK / TranslateBio: Drug maker Sanofi is pursuing two vaccines. They expect to start clinical trials in December.
Novavax: The Company plans to start another phase 3 trial in the United States by the end of November after having completed phase 2 trials in S. Africa.
University of Queensland in Australia / CSL: Researchers at the university have developed a vaccine. A phase 2/3 trial is expected to start late this year.
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm: Chinese company Sinopharm is testing an inactivated virus vaccine. Researchers launched phase 3 trials in the UAE in July and a month later in Peru and Morocco.
Sinovac Biotech: This Chinese company launched phase 3 trials of its inactivated virus vaccine in Brazil in July, Indonesia in August, and Turkey in September.
Bharat Biotech / Indian Council of Medical Research / Indian National Institute of Virology: Indian company Bharat announced in late October that it was beginning a phase 3 trial of its inactivated virus vaccine.
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