If you do not have the original ID, you will be in trouble during a police check. You should report the matter to the police immediately possibly at the main police station near Crazy signal. It would be better if you go there with some person who speaks Arabic well. Try also with the National Human Right Committee located in Musheirab near Woqood petrol station. NHRC will ask you for your ID to enable you to file a petition but since you don't have one, take a copy and try to explain to them about what took place. If they accept, they will help you out. You can also lodge a complain with the Labour Office.
Why did you allow him to take your ID and that too on a bus? No one except the authorities can do that.