Yes, you can.
Have you received your Qatar ID yet? Do you have a legalized contract? Even if you have one, you can still resign. Send your resignation letter to your HR Manager through your personal email giving them say a week's notice. Since you are still under the probationary period, you can leave even immediately. Suggest, you wait another week or so patiently and put in your resignation after you receive your salary. Some companies hold back employee's salary in such cases.