As per the last information I have, most workers can leave Qatar without going to their employers. Only some categories of employees are not allowed. I don't know which catagories require permission or exit permit from their employers before they can exit. You can check this out through any mandoob (PRO) you may know or possibly from people who do typing jobs around Doha. There are many of them in the city, Usually they are aware of the rules. Just do a bit of running around and drop in to some of their shops/offices. You can also check with the people at the passport & immigration offices and they will guide you best.